Home | About PR | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |   Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 135-139  

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)


1 Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission19-Jan-2011
Date of Decision25-Mar-2011
Date of Web Publication8-Jun-2011

Correspondence Address:
Hassan Vatandoost
PO Box: 14155-6446 Tehran
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: Centre of Environmental Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Project No.88-01-46-8661, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.81962

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Background: Using botanical insecticides as an alternative biocontrol technique for vector control is considered by some scientists. Materials and Methods: Chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil of Cupressus arizonica was investigated against fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared An. stephensi according to the method of the World Health Organization. Results: Of 46 constituents in the oil, limonene (14.44%), umbellulone (13.25%) and α-pinene (11%) were determined as the main constituents. Cupressus arizonica volatile oil showed significant larvicidal activity against An. stephensi with LC 50 and LC 90 values 79.30 ppm and 238.89 ppm respectively. Clear dose-response relationships were established with the highest dose of 160 ppm essential oil with almost 100% mortality. Discussion: The results from this study revealed that C. arizonica essential oil could be considered as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. However, the field evaluation of the formulation is necessary.

Keywords: Anopheles stephensi, botanical insecticide, Cupressus arizonica, essential oil, Iran, vector control


How to cite this article:
Sedaghat MM, Dehkordi AS, Khanavi M, Abai MR, Mohtarami F, Vatandoost H. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Phcog Res 2011;3:135-9

How to cite this URL:
Sedaghat MM, Dehkordi AS, Khanavi M, Abai MR, Mohtarami F, Vatandoost H. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Phcog Res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2020 May 31];3:135-9. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2011/3/2/135/81962


   Introduction Top


Anopheles mosquitoes are bloodsucking insects that are responsible for the transmission of malaria, filariasis and arboviruses; on the other hand they are important as nuisance mosquitoes in particular areas while they may not be vectors of any disease. [1] Human malaria is considered as the most important disease among the vector-borne diseases. Malaria still remains an endemic disease in the southeastern corner of the country. [2],[3] There are more than 25 currently recognized Anopheles species out of which seven of them have important roles in malaria transmission. Among these species, Anopheles stephensi is considered as a primary vector of malaria in the southern parts of the country. [2],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]

There are several methods for malaria control, most of which have been applied in Iran. Synthetic insecticides which are generally used have side-effects on human and animal health and also the environment. The side-effects of synthetic organophosphorus compounds on fish and other organisms in the environment are being increasingly reported. [10],[11] A lot of attention is being paid to natural products in vector control as they are environmentally safe, degradable and target-specific. Recent studies have demonstrated the insecticidal properties of plant essential oils and their efficacies against larvae of different species of mosquito. [4],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] The repellent effect of the extract and essential oil of plants has been investigated on some mosquito species in Iran. [21],[22],[23]

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene. This species is a medium-sized evergreen tree with a conic to ovoid-conic crown known as a native plant in the southwestern United States. [24],[25] It was introduced to Iran in 1954 and has been commonly cultivated in many parts of the country. [26] The biological effect of C. arizonica have been investigated and its effects as a potential mosquito repellent have been reported earlier. [27],[28] Previous studies indicated that α-pinene, limonene and umbellulone were obtained as major components from the oil of C. arizonica leaves in Iran, [29] Italy, [30] USA, [31] Algeria, [32] France, [33] Tunisia [27] and Argentina. [34]

This study was conducted to find out the efficacy of the leaf essential oil of C. arizonica against fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi under laboratory conditions and determine the chemical composition of the essential oil.


   Materials and Methods Top


Plant materials

A fresh leaf from an eight-year-old C. arizonica tree was collected in May 2009 from Tehran, Iran (51° 23'E, 35° 43'N, elevation: 1329 Meter). The plant was identified and authenticated and the voucher specimen was deposited at the Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Essential oil isolation

Fresh leaves (200 g) of C. arizonica were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified clevenger-type apparatus for 3 h, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and transferred into amber-colored vials at 5° C for further work. Essential oil was stored in an airtight container prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC and GC-MS).

Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

Analytical gas chromatography was carried out using an HP gas chromatograph. The separation was achieved by use of a HP 1 (Fused silica) capillary column (30 m Χ 0.25 mm; film thickness 0.25 μm); split ratio, 1:25, and using a flame ionization detector. The GC settings were programmed as follows: initial oven temperature was held at 40° C for 1 min, rising to 250° C at 5° C /min. The injector temperature was maintained at 250° C. The detector temperature was at 230° C. Helium was used as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1 ml/min.

GC-MS was performed on Agilent Technology 5973 mass selective detector connected with a HP 6890 gas chromatograph. The separation was achieved by use of a HP 1 MS (Fused silica) capillary column (30 m Χ 0.25 mm; film thickness 0.25 μm); split ratio, 1:25, and using a flame ionization detector. The MS operated at 70 eV ionization energy. Quantitative data were obtained from the electronic integration of the Flame Ionization Detector (FID) peak areas.

Determination of oil composition

Identification of the oil components was based on retention indices which were calculated by using retention times of n-alkanes that were injected after the oil at the same chromatographic conditions. The components of the oils were identified by comparison of their mass spectra and retention indices with Wiley library and those published in the literature. [27],[35] The percentage of each component is presented in [Table 1].
Table 1: Chemical constituents of leaf essential oil from Cupressus arizonica

Click here to view


Mosquito rearing

The fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi Bandar-Abass strain was obtained from the Department of Medical Entomology, Tehran University Medical Sciences. The mosquito colony was maintained continuously at 27° C with 12:12 light and dark photoperiod in 80 ± 10% relative humidity. Larvae of An. stephensi were continuously available for the mosquito larvicidal experiments.

Bioassays and larval mortality

Bioassays were performed according to the standard method recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). [36] The fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi, collected from the maintained laboratory stock served as the test organisms in this study. Methanol 99.0% was used as co-solvent and then different concentrations of the essential oil in distillated water were prepared. A 400-ml glass beaker was used for each experiment or control. Controls included batches of mosquitoes from the colony exposed to water and the solvent alone.

The larvae were exposed to the concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 ppm of essential oil extract in distilled water for 24 h. In the control beakers only 1 ml of solvent was dissolved into the water. Mortality was counted after 24 h recovery period. The percentage of mortality was reported from the average for the five replicates taken.

Statistical analysis

LC 50 (lethal concentration to cause 50% mortality in the population) and LC 90 (lethal concentration to cause 90% mortality in the population) were determined by the use of regression line employed by Finney. [37] In case of mortality in control beakers, it was corrected by Abbott's correction. [38] Differences between means were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05. [39]


   Results Top


Yields and chemical constituents of essential oil

The hydrodistillation of the C. arizonica leave gave oil in 0.8% (w/w) yield on fresh weight material. The essential oil was yellow with a distinct sharp odor.

[Table 1] shows constituents of the oil. Forty-six constituents in the leaf essential oil of C. arizonica were identified corresponding to 97.33% of the total oil. The main constituents in the C. arizonica0 leaf essential oil were limonene (14.44%), umbellulone (13.25%) and α-pinene (11%) respectively. The results revealed that monoterpene hydrocarbons in the leaf oil were predominant (40.72%), whereas oxygenated sesquiterpenes were present in low amounts.

Mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oil

The larvicidal potency of different concentrations of leaf essential oil of C. arizonica against An. stephensi is given in [Table 2]. Among the five concentrations tested, the dosage of 160 ppm was found to be the most toxic with 100% larval mortality. Cupressus arizonica leaf essential oil showed toxicity against the larvae. There was no mortality in the control groups. The LC 50 and LC 90 values against An. stephensi larvae were 79.30 ppm and 238.89 ppm respectively.
Table 2: Probit regression line parameters of Anopheles stephensi to leaf essential oil extraction of Cupressus arizonica at different interval concentrations

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


The efficacy of several plant essential oils and extracts as natural larvicides has been reported. [13],[14],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[40] In this study, major constituents and bioactivity of leaf essential oil of C. arizonica were considered. Limonene (14.44%), umbellulone (13.25%) and α-pinene (11%), cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (7.36%) and terpinen-4-ol (7.29%) were known as the main compounds of the oil.

In previous studies, various constituents of the oil of C. arizonica were reported. [27],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34] Although umbellulone is the most abundant constituent in the oils obtained from all mentioned studies, the percentage of the compound was varied, based on the origins of the plant. While it has been reported as 45.1% from C. arizonica cultivated in Italy, 37.3% in Algeria, 18.4% in Tunisia, 16.5% in Argentine and 5.4% in Texas, it was recorded as 13.25% in this study which is close to the result obtained from Argentinean samples. Although the oil obtained in this study has a moderate amount of limonene (14.44%) and known as the most abundant constituent, it was recorded 5.8% in Tunisia, 8.5% in Argentina, 8.7% in France and 14% in Texas.

The amount of limonene in this study is similar to the US samples. In the previous researches, α-pinene has been reported from the Texas (7.6%), Algeria (10.5%), Tunisia (20.0%) and Argentina samples (22.9%). In a similar study, it was discovered as the main constituent of the leaf oil (19.2%) in Isfahan, Iran, which is similar to the results of our study. [27],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34]th

According to the results of the larvicidal tests, the essential oil C. arizonica was effective against An. stephensi with LC 50 and LC 90 values of 79.30 and 238.89 ppm, respectively. The bioactivity of different extracts from the plants has been investigated on An. stephensi larvae. There is a report about the efficacy of the methanolic extract of Tagetes minuta L. on the An. stephensi in which, the LC 50 and LC 90 values were obtained as 2.5 mg/l and 11.0 mg/l, respectively. [17] The larvicidal activity of Tagetes patula oil has been reported on the larvae of An. stephensi with the LC 50 and LC 90 values of 12.08 mg/l and 57.62 mg/l, respectively. [41] Vatandoost and Moein-Vaziri reported LC 50 and LC 90 values of about 0.35 mg/l and 1.81 mg/l respectively of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract against An. stephensi larvae. [40] Our previous studies demonstrated the efficacy of Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil against An. stephensi larvae with the LC 50 and LC 90 values of 89.85 mg/l and 397.75 mg/l respectively. [20] The comparison of the efficacy of essential oils of C. arizonica and E. camaldulensis against An. stephensi larvae revealed that the oil of C. arizonica is more potent than E. camaldulensis. It seems that the presence of a high amount of limonene and α-pinene as larvicidal compounds in C. arizonica essential oil, could demonstrate its efficacy against An. stephensi larvae. [42]

The usage of plant essential oils as larvicides in vector control can be considered as a substitute method to reduce the side-effects of synthetic insecticides on the environment. Extensive efforts have been made to find new plants and their oils as natural and eco-friendly larvicides. In this way, our finding suggests that the leaf essential oil of C. arizonica has a potential larvicide effect. It is essential to conduct more research in this area in order to find good candidates and isolate the effective compounds.


   Acknowledgments Top


This work was supported by a grants from the Centre of Environmental Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Project No.88-01-46-8661.

 
   References Top

1.Service MW. A Guide to Medical Entomology. London: MacMillan; 1980. p. 226.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Sedaghat MM, Linton YM, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Harbach RE. The Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran: Molecular characterization and recognition of a new species. Bull Entomol Res 2003a;93:527-35.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Sedaghat MM, Linton YM, Nicolescu G, Smith L, Koliopoulos G, Zounos AK, et al. Morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheles (Anopheles) sacharovi Favre: A primary vector of malaria in the Middle East. Syst Entomol 2003b;28:241-56.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Vatandoost H, Shahi H, Abai MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Oshaghi MA, Zamani G. Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan province and their susceptibility to different larvicides. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health 2004;35:22-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Vatandoost H, Oshaghi M, Abaie MR, Shahi M, Yaghoobi F, Baghai M, et al. Bionomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan province, southern Iran. Acta Trop 2006;97:196-205.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Oshaghi MA, Sedaghat MM, Vatandoost H. Molecular characterization of the Anopheles maculipennis complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J 2003a;9:659-66.   Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Naddaf SR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Asmar M. Molecular characterization of the Anopheles fluviatilis species complex in Iran. East Mediterr Health J 2003;9:257-65.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Doosti S, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Hosseini M, Sedaghat MM. Applying Morphometric Variation of Seta 2 (Antepalmate Hair) among the Larvae of the Members of the Maculipennis Subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. Iranian J Arthropod Borne Dis 2007;1:28-37.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Sedaghat MM, Harbach RE. An annotated checklist of the Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. J Vect Ecol 2005;30:272-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Mittal PK, Adak T, Sharma VP. Acute toxicity of certain organochlorine, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroid and microbial insecticides to the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard). Indian J Malariol 1991;28:167-70.   Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.NICC-Comunicação e Saْde. Available from: http://www.cpqam.fiocruz.br/nicc/comunic/jc200101.htm. [cited in 2003].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Saxena SC, Sumithra L. Laboratory evaluation of leaf extract of new plant to suppress the population of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera:Culicidae). Curr Sci 1985;54:201-2.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Kumar A, Dutta GP. Indigenous plant oils as larvicidal agent against Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Curr Sci 1987;56:959-60.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Markouk M, Bekkouche K, Larhsini M, Bousaid M, Lazrek HB, Jana M. Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity. J Ethanopharm 2000;73:293-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Hadjiakhoondi A, Aghel N, Zamanizadeh N, Vatandoost H. Chemical and Biological study of Mentha spicata L. essential oil from Iran. Daru 2000;8:19-21.   Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Jamshidi A, Bagherj AE. Chemical constituents and efficacy of Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) bar essential oil against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Daru 2003;11:125-8.   Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Khanavi M, Abaee MR. Biochemical investigation of different extracts and larvicidal activity of Tagetes minuta L on Anopheles stephensi larvae. Iranian J Pharma Sci 2005;1:81-4.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Hadjiakhoondi A, Sadeghipour-Roodsari HR, Vatandoost H, Khanavi M, Abaee MR, Vosoughi M, et al. Fatty acid composition and toxicity of Melia azedarach L. fruits against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Iranian J Pharma Sci 2006;2:97-102.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Tare V, Deshpande S, Sharma RN. Susceptibility of two different strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to plant oils. J Econ Entomol 2004;97:1734-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]    
20.Sedaghat MM, Sanei AR, Khanavi M, Abai MR, Hadjiakhoondi A, Mohtarami F, et al. Phytochemistry and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2010;3:841-5.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Oshaghi MA, Ghalandari R, Vatandoost H, Shayeghi M, Kamali-nejad M, Tourabi-Khaledi H, et al. Repellent effect of extracts and essential oil of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. Iranian J Public Hlth 2003b;32:47-52.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Vatandoost H, Khazani A, KebriainZadeh A, Rafinejad J, Khoobdel M, Abai MR, et al. Comparative efficacy of Neem and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Med 2008;1:1-6.   Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Jahanifard E, Vatandoost H, Amin G, Moosavi L, et al. Repellecy effect of Myrtle essential oil and DEET against Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, the main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis under labo ratory conditions. Iranian J Public Hlth 2006;35:713.   Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Elmore FH, Janish JR. Shrubs and trees of the southwest uplands. Tucson, AZ, USA: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association; 1976.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Farjon A. World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. 2 nd ed. England, UK: The Bath Press; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Sabeti H. Native and Exotic Tree and Shrubs of Iran. Tehran: Tehran Univ Press; 1966. p. 430 (in persian).  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Cheraif I, Jannet HB, Hammami M, Khouja ML, Mighri Z. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Cupressus arizonica Greene. Biochem Syst Ecol 2007;35:813-20.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Akob CA, Ewete FK. Laboratory Evaluation of Bioactivity of Ethanolic Extracts of Plants Used for Protection of Stored Maize against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky in Cameroon. Afr Entomol 2009;17:90-4.   Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Afsharypuor S, Tavakoli P. Essential oil constituents of leaves and fruits of Cupressus arizonica Greene. J Essent Oil Res 2005;17:225-6.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Flamini G, Cioni PL, Morelli I, Bighelli A, Castola V, Casanova J. GC/MS and 13C NMR integrated analysis of the essential oils from leaves, branches and female cones of Cupressus arizonica from Italy. J Essent Oil Res 2003;15:302-4.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Adams RP, Zanoni, TA, Lara A, Barrero AF, Cool LG. Comparisons among Cupressus arizonica Greene, C. benthamii Endl., C. lindleyi Klotz. ex Endl. and C. lusitanica Mill. using leaf essential oils and DNA fingerprinting. J Essent Oil Res 1997;9:303-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Chanegriha N, Baaliouamer A, Meklati BY, Charetien JR, Keravis G. GC and GC/MS leaf oil analysis of four Algerian cypress species. J Essent Oil Res 1997;9:555-9.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Pierre-Leandri C, Fernandez X, Lizzani-Cuvelier L, Loiseau M, Fellous R, Garnero J. Chemical composition of cypress essential oils: Volatile constituents of leaf oils from seven cultivated Cupressus species. J Essent Oil Res 2003;15:242-7.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Malizia RA, Acardell D, Molli JS, Gonzalez S, Guerra PE, Grau RJ. Volatile constituents of leaf oils from the cupressaceae family part I. Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw., C. arizonica Greene and C. torulosa Don species growing in Argentina. J Essent Oil Res 2000;12:59-63.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Adams RP. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. 4 th Ed. Carol Stream, Illinois: Allured Publishing Corporation; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.WHO. Instructions for determining susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticides. Geneva: WHO/VBC;1981. p. 807.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Finney DJ. Probit Analysis, 3 rd ed. London, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1971.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Abbot WS. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Eco Entomol 1925;18:265-7.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Cary NC. Saxena SC, Sumithra L. Laboratory evaluations of leaf extract of new plant to suppress the population of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae): SAS Institute. The SAS System for Windows, release 8.1. Curr Sci 2001;54:201-2.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Vatandoost H, Moein-Vaziri V. Larvicidal activity of Neem extract (Azadirachta indica) against mosquito larvae in Iran. East Mediterr Health J 2004;10:1-9.   Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Dharmagadda VS, Naik SN, Mittal PK, Vasudevan P. Larvicidal activity of Tagetes patula essential oil against three mosquito species. Bioresource Technol 2005;96:1235-40.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Cheng SS, Huang CG, Ying-Ju C, Jane-Jane Y, Wei-June C, Shang-Tzen C. Chemical compositions and larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils from two Eucalyptus species. Bioresource Technol 2009;100:452-6.  Back to cited text no. 42
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Phytochemical Profile and Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge Against Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis Vectors
Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi,Seyed Mohammad Abtahi,Abdolhossein Madani,Azim Paksa,Yaser Salim Abadi,Mohammad Amin Gorouhi,Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Constituents of essential oils ofCupressus arizonicaGreene from Uttarakhand Himalaya (India)
Hema Lohani,Ujjwal Bhandari,Garima Gwari,S. Zafar Haider,Nirpendra K. Chauhan
Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2015; 27(5): 459
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Effect of Seasonal and Tree Girth Size Variation onCupressus torulosaD. Don Leaves Essential Oil Composition Growing in Uttarakhand
Hema Lohani,Arvind Kumar,Ujjwal Bhandari,S. Zafar Haider,Sher Singh,Nirpendra Chauhan
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2014; 17(6): 1257
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of TunisianCupressus arizonicaGreeneEssential Oils
Amri Ismail,Emilia Mancini,Laura De Martino,Lamia Hamrouni,Mohsen Hanana,Bassem Jamoussi,Samia Gargouri,Mariarosa Scognamiglio,Vincenzo De Feo
Chemistry & Biodiversity. 2014; 11(1): 150
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil fromCupressus sempervirensL.horizontalisResin in Conjunction with its Biological Assessment
Z. Ulukanli,S. Karabörklü,B. Ates,S. Erdogan,M. Cenet,M. G. Karaaslan
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2014; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Essential oil composition, adult repellency and larvicidal activity of eight Cupressaceae species from Greece against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Athanassios Giatropoulos,Danae Pitarokili,Fotini Papaioannou,Dimitrios P. Papachristos,George Koliopoulos,Nickolaos Emmanouel,Olga Tzakou,Antonios Michaelakis
Parasitology Research. 2013; 112(3): 1113
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Baseline susceptibility of different geographical strains of Anopheles stephensi (diptera: Culicidae) to temephos in malarious areas of Iran
Soltani, A. and Vatandoost, H. and Oshadhi, M.A. and Enayati, A.A. and Raeisi, A. and Eshraghian, M.R. and Soltan-Dallal, M.M. and Hanafi-Bojd, A.A. and Abai, M.R. and Rafi, F.
Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 2013; 7(1): 56-65
[Pubmed]
8 Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (æCarolina Sapphireæ)
Ali, A. and Tabanca, N. and Demirci, B. and Baser, K.H.C. and Ellis, J. and Gray, S. and Lackey, B.R. and Murphy, C. and Khan, I.A. and Wedge, D.E.
Natural Product Communications. 2013; 8(2): 257-260
[Pubmed]
9 conducting international diploma course on malaria program planning and management (1996-2012)
mesdaghinia, a.r. and vatandoost, h. and hanafi-bojd, a.a. and majdzadeh, r. and raeisi, a.
journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2013; 7(2): 100-112
[Pubmed]
10 Essential oil compositions of branchlets and cones ofCupressus torulosaD. Don
Rajendra C. Padalia,Ram S. Verma,Amit Chauhan,Chandan S. Chanotiya
Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2013; 25(4): 251
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 An update on published literature (period 1992-2010) and botanical categories on plant essential oils with effects on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Mario Vargas, V.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental. 2012; 52(2): 143-193
[Pubmed]
12 Indication of pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi from Iran
Hassan Vatandoost,Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012; 5(9): 722
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Repellency effects of essential oils of myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on human volunteers
Tavassoli, M. and Shayeghi, M. and Abai, M.R. and Vatandoost, H. and Khoobdel, M. and Salari, M. and Ghaderi, A. and Rafi, F.
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 2011; 5(2): 10-22
[Pubmed]
14 Iranian Plant Essential Oils as Sources of Natural Insecticide Agents
Asgar Ebadollahi
International Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2011; 5(5): 266
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results
    Discussion
    Acknowledgments
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3815    
    Printed161    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded34    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 14    

Recommend this journal