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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 125-127 Table of Contents     

Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, S.V.P.M's College of Pharmacy, Malegaon (BK), Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, S.U. College of Pharmacy, Kharadi, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission27-Mar-2010
Date of Decision28-Mar-2010
Date of Web Publication19-Jul-2010

Correspondence Address:
D J Taur
Department of Pharmacognosy, S.V.P.M's College of Pharmacy, Malegaon (BK), Tal. Baramati, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.65504

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   Abstract 

In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml.

Keywords: Anthelmintic, Eucalyptus globulus, eucalyptus oil, Pheretima posthumag


How to cite this article:
Taur D J, Kulkarni V B, Patil R Y. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil. Phcog Res 2010;2:125-7

How to cite this URL:
Taur D J, Kulkarni V B, Patil R Y. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil. Phcog Res [serial online] 2010 [cited 2020 Jan 18];2:125-7. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2010/2/3/125/65504


   Introduction Top


In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections affecting humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. [1] The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Therefore, treatment of helminthes diseases has become difficult. [2] Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. [3] A new lead for helminth control is greatly needed and has promoted studies of traditionally used anthelmintic plants which are generally considered to be very important sources of bioactive substances. [4]

Eucalyptus globulus Labill (family Myrtaceae) is a lofty tree of about 90 m in height. Leaves are febrifuge, carminative, stimulant, expectorant, antiseptic, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Eucalyptus oil has powerful antiseptic and disinfectant properties. It increases the flow of saliva, gastric and intestinal juices and increases the digestion and appetite. [5],[6]

Bark of E. globulus contains ellagitannins, methyl and glycosyl derivatives of ellagic acid and free ellagic and gallic acids, gallotannins and cathechin. [7],[8],[9],[10] Essential oil from this species has a therapeutic application in the treatment of pulmonary infections by inhalation [11] and the monoterpene extracted from Eucalyptus citriodora, E. globulus and Eucalyptus teretcorni exhibits antibacterial activity. [12] Besides antibacterial activity, the essential oil from eucalyptus shows analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. [13] Phytochemical analysis has established that the genus Eucalyptus contains monoterpenes. [14] Two monoterpene glycosides, conjugated with gallic acid globulusin A and B, together with four known compounds, cypellocarpin A, eucaglobulin, cuniloside and (1S, 2S, 4R)-trans-2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from hot water extracts of the leaves of E. globulus[15] The aim of this research was to study chemical composition and anthelmintic property of the volatile oil from the leaves of E. globulus.


   Material and Methods Top


Plant material

The leaves were collected from Baramati region of Dist. Pune and were authenticated by Prof. R. B. Deshmukh, Head, Department of Botany, Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar.

Isolation of Essential Oil

The essential oil was isolated from the fresh leaves by hydrodistillation in a clevenger-type apparatus, yielding essential oil 0.53% w/v.

Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity

Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) of 3-5 cm length and 0.1-0.2 cm width were used for anthelmintic activity because of their anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. [16],[17] The earthworms were divided into four groups containing five earthworms in each group. Oil was dissolved in water using tween 80. All the test samples and the standard drug were freshly prepared before starting the experiment. The solution of oils and standard solution were poured in petridishes. All the earthworms were washed in normal saline solution before they were released into petridish containing 10 ml solution of E. globulus oil in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, and albendazole (10 mg/ml). The time taken for the worms to get paralyzed and killed was noted. All readings were expressed as mean and standard error of mean (SEM) of three animals in each group. [18]

Evaluation of Volatile Oil

Volatile oil was evaluated for optical rotation and refractive index as per the standard procedure. [19]

Thin layer chromatography

Thin layer chromatography was performed using silica gel G as the stationary phase, toluene-ethylacetate (97:3) as the mobile phase and vanillin-sulfuric acid as the spraying reagent. [20]


   Results Top


Essential oil from E. globulus contains 1,8-cineole as the major component [21],[22] and is used in the treatment of pulmonary infections [11] and also exhibits antibacterial activity. [12] The result of the present study reveals that E. globulus oil in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 ml/ml showed significant anthelmintic activity as compared to the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml, as shown in [Figure 1]. E. globulus oil showed anthelmintic activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Evaluation of E. globulus oil showed an optical rotation of +0.8 and a refractive index of 1.4554. Chromatographic study confirmed the presence of borneol, linalool, cineol, geranyl acetate, anethol, saffrol as the phytoconstituents of eucalyptus oil, as shown in [Table 1].


   Discussion Top


An Indian adult earthworm (P. posthuma) has anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. [16],[17] Result indicates that time taken for albendazole for causing paralysis and death of P. posthuma was 5.82 0.466 and 6.54 0.429, respectively, whereas eucalyptus oil at a concentration of 0.15 ml/ml causes paralysis and death at 4.598 1.151 and 6.57 1.374, respectively. So, the present investigation concludes that E. globulus oil has anthelmintic potential due to the presence of borneol, linalool, cineol, geranyl acetate, anethol, saffrol as phytoconstituents.


   Acknowledgments Top


The authors are thankful to the Management and Prof. R. N. Patil, Principal, of S.V.P.M's College of Pharmacy, Malegaon (Bk), Baramati, for providing necessary facilities and also to Prof. R. B. Deshmukh, Head, Department of Botany, Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar, for the authentication of the plant.

 
   References Top

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3.Turnipseed SB, Roybal JE, Rupp HS, Gonzales SA, Pfenning AP, Hurlbut JA. Confirmation of avermectin residues in food matrices with negative-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 1999;13:493-9.   Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
4.Hammond JA, Fielding D, Bishop SC. Prospects for plant anthelmintics in tropical veterinary medicine. Vet Res Commun 1997;21:213-28.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2 nd ed, Vol 1. Dehradun: International book Distributor; 1985. p. 1044-5.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Nadkarni AK. Dr. K.M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Madica. 3 rd ed, Vol 1. Bombay: Popular Prakashan; 1992. p. 512-6.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Yazaki Y, Hillis WE. Polyphenol of Eucalyptus globulus, E. regnans and E. deglupta. Phytochemistry 1976;15:1180-1.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Fechtal PM, Riedl B. Analyse de extraits tannants des 'ecorces des eucalyptus apr`es hydrolyse acide par la chromatographie en phase gaseuse coupl'ee avec la spectrometrie de masse (GC-MS). Holzforschung 1991;45:269-73.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Conde E, Cadahia E, Diez-Barra R, Garcia-Vallejo MC. Polyphenolic composition of bark extracts from Eucalyptus camaldulensis , E. globulus and E. rudis. Holz Roh Werkstoff 1996;54:175-81.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Cadahia E, Conde E, Fernandez de Simon B, Garcia-Vallejo MC. Tannin composition of Eucalyptus camaldulensis , E. globulus and E. rudis. Part II. Bark Holzforschung 1997;51:125-9.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Low D, Rawal BD, Griffin WJ. Antibacterial action of the essential oils of some Australian Myrtaceae with special references to the activity of chromatographic fractions of oil of Eucalyptus citriodora. Planta Med 1974;26:184-9.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
12.Ramezani H, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Antifungal activity of the volatile oil of Eucalyptus citriodora. Fitoterapia 2002;73:261-2.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
13.Silva J, Abebe W, Sousa SM, Duarte VG, Machado MI, Matos FJ. Analgestic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;89:277-83.  Back to cited text no. 13  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
14.Foudil-Cherif Y, Meklati BY, Verzera A, Mondello L, Dugo G. Chemical examination of essential oils from the leaves of nine Eucalyptus species growing in Algeria. J Essent Oil Res 2000;12:186-91.   Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Hasegawa T, Takano F, Takata T, Niiyama M, Ohta T. Bioactive monoterpene glycosides conjugated with gallic acid from the leaves of Eucalyptus globules. Phytochemistry 2008;69:747-53.  Back to cited text no. 15  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
16.Thorn GW, Adams R, Braunwald E, Isselbacher K, Petersdorf R. Harrison's Principle of Internal Medicine. New York: Mcgraw Hill Co; 1977. p. 1088.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Vigar Z. Atlas of Medical Parasitology. 2 nd ed. Singapore: P.G. Publishing House; 1984. p. 216.  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Tambe V, Nirmal S, Jadhav R, Ghogare P, Bhalke R, Girme A, Bhambar R. Anthelmintic activity of Wedelia trilobata leaves. Indian J Nat Prod 2006;22 : 27-9.  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Anonymous, Indian Pharmacopoeia. Vol 2, New Delhi: The Controller of Publications; 1996. p. A-137.  Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Wagner H, Bladt S. Plant drug analysiws: A thin layer chromatography atlas. 2 nd ed, New Delhi, India: Springer; 1996. p. 149.  Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Silvestre AJ, Cavaleiro JA, Delmond B, Filliatre C, Bourgeois G. Analysis of the variation of the essential oil composition of Eucalyptus globules Labill. from Portugal using multivariate statistical analysis. Ind Crops Prod 1997;6:27-33.  Back to cited text no. 21      
22.Viturro CI, Molina AC, Heit CI. Volatile components of Eucalyptus globules Labill. ssp. bicostata from Jujuy, Argentina. J Essent Oil Res 2003;15:206-8.  Back to cited text no. 22      


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


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